What is the Wool Fabric? Types & Characteristics

What is the Wool Fabric? Types & Characteristics

We’ll look at the definition of wool fabric, its varieties, and its traits in this article. Please keep reading.

The hair of various animals is used to make the fabric known as wool. While most people associate the word “wool” with sheep, there are, in fact, a variety of distinct types of wool that producers derive from animals other than sheep.

In this article, we’ll discuss what is wool fabric in detail.

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What is the Wool Fabric?

Wool is a natural fiber that is removed from sheep, goats, camels, llamas, alpacas, and other animals. Wool is renowned for its ability to wick away moisture, retain warmth, and resist creases.

The wool sheared from merino sheep is one of the softest types. Wool fabrics are widely used for overcoats, jackets, suits, and dresses. They are also a popular material for home textiles and come in a variety of weaves, patterns, and colors.

How is Wool Fabric Made?

Shearing wool-bearing animals mark the beginning of the wool production process. Some animals only produce wool once a year, while others do so multiple times.

The cleaned and sorted wool from the shearing is then put into bales. Although there are numerous techniques for removing oily lanolin from raw wool, the majority of significant wool producers use chemical catalysts.

What is the Wool Fabric? Types & Characteristics

The process of carding, which involves separating the wool fibers into long strands, is done after they have been cleaned and sorted. After being spun into yarn, these carded strands can be woven into clothing and other kinds of woolen textiles. This yarn is then used to make carded strands into yarn.

Finally, a variety of post-production techniques may be used on the finished textiles to add particular characteristics. For instance, fulling is the process of submerging a wool textile in water to cause the fibers to interlock, and crabbing is the act of setting this interlock permanently.

The final option is for wool producers to decorate their finished wool products to prevent shrinkage.

Types of Wool Fabric

There are various kinds of wool fabric available in the textile industry according to the hair or coating of animals used to manufacture wool fabric. There are specific features and functions for each type of wool fabric. Here is the type of wool fabric below_

Merino Wool

One of the most popular types of wool is merino, which is also the best. A variety of garments, accessories, and industrial products are made with this wool. The wool produced by Merino sheep is a natural fiber.

Its many advantages include the fact that it is first and foremost natural. By controlling body temperature, it helps. Merino wool aids in keeping you dry, warm, and perspiration-free.

What is the Wool Fabric? Types & Characteristics

Qiviut Wool

A type of wool fabric called qiviut wool is created from the musk ox’s hair. Despite being rough, wool is an eight times better insulator than sheep wool. It is one of the coziest and warmest wools on the market. For gloves, clothing, and other cold-weather accessories, Qiviut wool is ideal.

Cashmere Wool

The most expensive and opulent wools are those made of cashmere. This wool is used to make a variety of items, including gloves, blazers, scarves, socks, underwear, and cold-weather clothing. Although cashmere wool is incredibly soft and delicate, it also has excellent durability characteristics.

Mohair Wool

Extremely soft and wavy wool, known as mohair, is a type that is thick and coarse. This type of wool is produced from the exceptionally thick, silky, and wavy hair of angora goats. This wool is used for many different things, such as scarves, sweaters, winter hats, socks, suits, coats, home furnishings, wall fabrics, craft yarns, and a lot more.

Cheviot Wool

The coarse hair of Cheviot sheep is used to make a particular type of wool fabric known as cheviot. Usually, this wool is used to refer to medium- to heavy-weight woolen fabrics with a matte surface texture. As a coating cloth, this type of wool is frequently employed.

Virgin Wool

What is the Wool Fabric? Types & Characteristics

Lamb’s wool, also referred to as virgin wool, is created from a lamb’s first shearing. The term “virgin wool” also applies to wool that has not been recycled. Slippers, clothing, such as sweaters, and home furnishings, such as blankets and rugs, are all made from this wool.

Amazing features include its softness and durability. Aside from being machine washable, this wool is excellent at wicking away moisture.

Alpaca Wool

This is a cotton-knit, silky, luxuriously fuzzy wool made from alpaca hair. The most advantageous quality of this wool is that it is hypoallergenic. Apart from that, it’s just as soft and cozy as any other premium wool. Alpaca wool is used to make designer clothing such as sweaters, stockings, hats, gloves, and suits.


When a lamb is only six to seven months old, it is only the first shearing, and the fleece used to make this wool fabric comes from that type of lamb. This type of wool yields a fabric that is smooth and durable. It is thought to be the best wool in terms of quality.

Camel Wool

The undercoat of the camel is used to produce this type of wool. Typically, it is gathered when the animal is losing its coat. In addition to being warmer and more comfortable than human hair, camel-hair fiber is also more sensitive and insulating. This type of wool is used to make carpets, blankets, knitwear, and overcoat fabrics.

Angora Wool

What is the Wool Fabric? Types & Characteristics

A unique breed of rabbit that produces hair that is incredibly soft and fine yields angora wool. Although wool is very expensive, it is renowned for its softness, thin fibers, and fluffiness. In addition to being used to make felt and knitting yarn, this wool fabric is also used to make sweaters and suits.

Llama Wool

Wool from lamas is extraordinarily soft, light, and smooth. Although it is suitable for outerwear, it is too abrasive to wear close to the skin. It’s challenging to locate a llama breeder who creates this type of wool. Llama fiber is a type of unique fiber that can be creatively combined with other fibers and used for spinning, felting, knitting, and weaving.

Vicuna Wool

Vicuna wool is produced from the vicuna’s fleece. This is the priciest kind of wool that is offered. This wool is used to make a variety of home goods, including sweaters, socks, scarves, coats, throws, blankets, and suit insulation.

Shetland Wool

Shetland wool is a particular breed of sheep’s wool that can only be found in Scotland. This wool keeps you warm and possesses all the wonderful qualities of the best wool textiles. It is perfect for making winter clothing. The material is slightly scratchy, though.

Characteristics of Wool Fabric

Below are the characteristics of wool fabric:

Excellent Breathability

What is the Wool Fabric? Types & Characteristics

Due to its superior breathability, wool is a fabric that draws moisture vapor from your body and moves it away from you so that it can dissipate into the environment. Although this material is less prone to clamminess and is incredibly breathable.

Anti-static Functionality

Wool is less likely to adhere to the skin in an uncomfortable way than other materials because it absorbs moisture condensate but does not generate static electricity.

Effective to Absorbing Moisture

Wool fabric absorbs moisture incredibly well. It minimizes quick dissipation after drying and absorbs moisture, keeping the wearer from feeling chilled. After arduous exercise, it absorbed sweat and assisted in shielding the body from temperature changes.

Excellent Stretchability

The elasticity of wool is high. The stretch in this fabric varies from 10% to 30% when it is dry to 40% to 50% when it is saturated. The fabric quickly returns to its normal dimensions after drying.

Cool and Warm

Wool is a living fiber that responds to changes in core temperature, unlike synthetics or other fabrics. As a result, it keeps you cool when it’s hot outside and warm when it’s cold outside.

What is the Wool Fabric? Types & Characteristics

Odor Resistant

Strong odor resistance is provided by the wool fabric. You will sweat less because this fabric can absorb and evaporate moisture. When washed away, the scents from perspiration are effectively absorbed and sealed away.

How is Wool Fabric Used?

Wool has been used in countless different ways by people throughout history. Wool is primarily used in consumer products, but due to its toughness and flame-retardant properties, it is also frequently used in industrial settings.

Although wool can be used to make clothing that touches the skin directly, it is much more typical to find wool used to make outerwear or other types of clothing that don’t directly touch the body.

Wool fibers, for example, are widely used to create sweaters, hats, gloves, and other types of accessories and clothing. The majority of the formal suits in the world are also made of this fabric.

Care Instructions for Wool

  • Before storing the woolen clothes, remember to empty pockets as wool tends to stretch over time. By doing so, the fabric won’t sag.
  • Ironing is not recommended because it can damage clothing and alter the structure of proteins in wool fibers.
  • prefer to have the clothes dry cleaned. Use a wool detergent and lukewarm water when hand-washing any woolen clothing.
  • Maintain them with cedar or lavender balls and in a cool area.
  • Cover wool clothing with natural materials instead of plastic bags since they tend to retain moisture. Examples include paper or cloth.


Wool has some extraordinary qualities despite costing more than cotton to make. The textile industry has long used this fabric extensively. In comparisons of quantitative moisture and thermal properties, wool fibers and fabrics performed excellently.

Wool clothing will last for years if you maintain it. For example, alpaca resists water and doesn’t hold on to dust.

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